Vienna (inhabited place)

Located on the Danube River, at a crossroads in the center of Europe. Formerly, Vienna was the capital of the Holy Roman Empire and of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Originally a Celtic settlement, it became a Roman military settlement and was occupied by the Magyars in 907, then passed to the Babenburgs in 976. It became the capital of the duchy of Austria in 1156 and was occupied by Ottocar II of Bohemia from 1251 to 1276. It was unsuccessfully besieged by the Turks in 1529 and 1683. During the 18th century, Vienna was one of the great cultural centers in Europe, the home of Mozart, Beethoven, Haydn, and Schubert. The city was occupied by the French during the Napoleonic Wars, in 1805 and 1808 and from 1814 to 1815. It was annexed by Nazi Germany in 1938 and liberated by the Russians in 1945. The historic centre of Vienna was designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO.