Founded by Phoenicians; passed to Carthaginians; was Roman free town 354 BCE; under Ostrogoths, Byzantines (from 535 CE), Saracens (from 832 CE); flourished under Normans from 1072; went to Hohenstaufens (1194), Angevins, Aragonese (from 1280s), and Spain. Palermo was seized by Garibaldi in 1860 and made a part of the kingdom of Italy in 1861; it was captured by Allied forces on July 30, 1943.