Italy (nation)

Inhabited since 50,000 BCE; settled by Indo-Europeans 1850 BCE, Etruscans 1600 BCE, and Greeks 800 BCE; united by Romans 270 BCE; independent states rose after fall of Holy Roman Empire, notably Naples, Milan, Florence, Venice and papacy; reunited in the 19th century; official language is Italian, though significant minorities speak German, French, and Slovene.